GENETIC MAKEUP LÀ GÌ

     

DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans & almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s toàn thân has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria (where it is called mitochondrial DNA or mtDNA). Mitochondria

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are structures within cells that convert the energy from food into lớn a khung that cells can use.Quý khách hàng vẫn xem: Genetic makeup là gì

The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), & thymine (T). Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, & more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people. The order, or sequence, of these bases determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism, similar to the way in which letters of the alphabet appear in a certain order lớn size words & sentences.quý khách hàng vẫn xem: Genetic makeup là gì

DNA bases pair up with each other, A with T and C with G, to lớn form units called base pairs. Each base is also attached khổng lồ a sugar molecule & a phosphate molecule. Together, a base, sugar, and phosphate are called a nucleotide. Nucleotides are arranged in two long strands that form a spiral called a double helix. The structure of the double helix is somewhat lượt thích a ladder, with the base pairs forming the ladder’s rungs & the sugar & phosphate molecules forming the vertical sidepieces of the ladder.

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An important property of DNA is that it can replicate, or make copies of itself. Each strvà of DNA in the double helix can serve as a pattern for duplicating the sequence of bases. This is critical when cells divide because each new cell needs to lớn have sầu an exact copy of the DNA present in the old cell.

DNA is a double helix formed by base pairs attached to lớn a sugar-phosphate backbone.

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Credit: U.S. National Library of Medicine

For more information about DNA:

The New Genetics, a publication of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, part of the NIH, discusses the structure of DNA & how it was discovered.

A basic explanation and illustration of DNA can be found on Arizona State University"s "Ask a Biologist" website.

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